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It is a branch of dentistry which aims to treat the caries that occur in the outer layers of the tooth such as enamel or dentin and thus stop the progression of the caries and protect the vitality of the tooth. This prevents the subsequent stages of endodontics (tooth canal treatment) or tooth extraction. The resulting tooth loss is treated with fillings in a manner that is aesthetically functional and compatible with the oral tissues.
Bacterial plaque, which consists of bacteria in the mouth, can form acid from residues in the mouth of sugary and bakery foods. These acids dissolve the mineral tissue of the teeth, causing the enamel to deteriorate and consequently the initiation of dental caries.
The region to be applied in the selection of the type of filler to be applied to the patient, the chewing forces effective in this region, the aesthetic expectations of the patient and the amount of material loss are of great importance.
Types of fillings
1. Amalgam Fillings (Metal Fillings)

It has been the most preferred filler for years due to its durability and economic efficiency. Nowadays, increasing aesthetic demands of patients, rumors about the effects of amalgam mercury on human health and adhesive systems (tooth-colored fillings) cause this material to be abandoned gradually.
In addition, some individuals may develop an allergic reaction to the materials contained in amalgam. In fact, the amount of mercury released in the mouth as a result of chewing and grinding is much smaller than the amount of water, air and food. All scientific research has concluded that mercury is harmless. In rare cases, there may be sensitivities arising from electrification in people with different metal restorations in the mouth environment or when they enter another metal mouth environment such as a fork. . It is prepared by mixing 70% silver, 23% tin, small amount of copper and zinc powder with mercury. The mixture is stacked in the cavity prepared by the dentist and the filling hardens in a few hours. The area where the amalgam filling is made should not be used for at least one hour; The patient should be given a second appointment for polishing after 24 hours. The polishing process will reduce the corrosion by obtaining a smooth surface. As with each filling application, hot-cold sensitivity may be present for a short time after amalgam fillings.
2. Composite Resins (Dental Color Fillings, Aesthetic Fillings, Adhesive Systems)

Especially in cases where aesthetics are in the foreground, they are preferred tooth color restorations. Because of the coupling properties with the tooth, there is no need to remove the material from the tooth in order to provide retention as in amalgam fillings; only caries are removed. Composite fillings are laid layer by layer in the prepared cavity and each layer is cured with a special light. When this process is finished, composite fillings are shaped and corrected according to the tooth.
Composites can be used not only to restore caries, but also for their cosmetic effects by changing the color and shape of teeth. The main disadvantages are the sensitivity of a period of time after the procedure. The colors of the fillers may also change slightly with coloring foods such as coffee and tea.
Unlike amalgam restorations, composite fillings are completed in one session. After treatment, the patient can use his / her wishes normally. The main disadvantages are that there is a certain amount of precision after the procedure.

3. Inlays and Onlays
It is a kind of crown crown prosthesis that restores tooth loss due to factors such as root canal treatment, caries and trauma to complement only the missing parts of the tooth, or in a simple way, it is a kind of filling prepared from gold, various alloys, composite or porcelain in the laboratory.
Inlay and inlays, as in laminate veneers, the intact part of the tooth is preserved in its natural state. It is preferred instead of metallic and dark colored amalgam restorations on the teeth of the posterior region of the patients with high aesthetic and comfort expectations. In addition, when a large number of fillings are required, porcelain fillings prepared in the laboratory can be saved in the second session following the dental preparation and measurement stage in a single session, which saves time. Likewise, the preparation of the restorations in the laboratory rather than in the mouth, as in conventional fillings, is a perfect match.
Unlike mercury in amalgam, porcelain is one of the most biologically compatible materials to the human body. Besides, high aesthetic properties make porcelain preferable. Due to all these factors, the use of metal alloys and composites has decreased considerably and has been replaced by porcelain inlays.

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